Not very many women were getting degrees in mathematics in 1928. (Not many are doing so today.) Grace Hopper got her MA in 1930 and a PhD. in 1934. She joined the Naval Reserve in 1943. Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 - January 1, 1992) was a pioneer. She was one of the founders of modern computing.
Grace Hopper was the one who said, "It's always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission." (This is one of my favorite quotes.)
Grace Murray Hopper often presented a piece of wire about a foot long, and explained that it represented a nanosecond, since it was the maximum distance electricity could travel in wire in one-billionth of a second. She often contrasted this nanosecond with a microsecond - a coil of wire nearly a thousand feet long - as she encouraged programmers not to waste even a microsecond.
Have you ever wondered where the term "computer bug" comes from? The Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator stopped working in September 1945. Lieutenant Junior Grade Hopper (who was always good with gadgets) was one of those who took it apart piece by piece until a moth was found stuck between the contacts of relay number 70. The log entry says "First actual case of bug being found," and the word went out that the machine had been "debugged." [click on the image for a large view of the log and the bug.]
Although programmers the world over love-to-hate COBOL (the COmmon Business Oriented Language), it was one of the first compiled languages.
Perhaps [Grace Hopper's] best-known contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer.Her compiler lead directly to the development of COBOL; a major step into the modern world of computing we know today. And there is still a VERY good chance that COBOL wrote your last pay check, printed your last bank statement, tracks your car insurance, ...
Amazing Grace even has US Naval vessel named in her honor. The USS Hopper (DDG-70) is a 500 ft. long AEGIS Class Guided Missile Destroyer, generates 100,000 shaft horsepower and was commissioned on 6 September 1997. The ship's motto is "AUDE ET EFFICE" which translates to "Dare and Do," a favorite phrase of Rear Admiral Hopper's when giving advice.
Grace Murray Hopper died in 1992 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, having become the first woman to hold the rank of rear admiral. Grace Hopper's military awards and decorations include:
- Defense Distinguished Service Medal
- Legion of Merit
- Meritorious Service Medal
- American Campaign Medal
- World War II Victory Medal
- National Defense Service Medal
- Armed Forces Reserve Medal with two Hourglass Devices
- Naval Reserve Medal